Central Brazil consists of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and the Federal District, where the national capital, Brasília is located. With the change of Brazil’s capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília, in 1960, there was a big change in the region. The increase in population and the construction of roads and railways was intense. Currently, the rate of urbanization in the region is greater than 81%. Its total area is of 1,612,077.2 square kilometers, being the second largest region in Brazilian territory. The climate is tropical, with a rainy summer and a dry winter from April to December. In winter the average temperature is 18 ° C and above 25 ° C in summer. There is a wide variety of vegetation in this region. Most of the which is covered by cerrado vegetation and its undergrowth: trees with twisted trunks and and low shrubs. In Mato Grosso do Sul there is an isolated area of grassland.
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The Northern region of Brazil is the largest with 3,869,637 square kilometers and has seven states. Besides being the largest territorial area, it is located in the two largest states of Brazil: Amazonas and Pará. Despite being the largest region of Brazil, it is the least populated. The region is bordered on the south by Mato Grosso, Goiás and Bolivia. On the north it borders with Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana, and on the east by Maranhão and Piauí and Bahia and finally on the west with Peru and Colombia. The climate is quite humid, with an equatorial climate. Temperatures are high throughout the year. The rains are constant, having a dry season from June to November. The highest rainfall in the coastal areas are of Amapa, mouth of the Amazon River. It is in the Northern Region that is located the largest ecosystem in the world. The Amazon accounts for over a third of the world’s forest reserves. Its main features are the big and wide trees (broadleaf species), close to one another and joined by vines and epiphytes (plants that rely on others). Because of the climate, hot and rainy, it promotes plant growth and reproduction of animals throughout the whole year, making the Amazon forest home to the most varied flora of the planet.
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The Northeast Brazil Region is the third largest region of Brazil and the largest in number of states, nine: Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe. Its total area is 1.561.177km² similar to the total area of Mongolia. The region has 3.338km beaches, Bahia being the state with the largest extension with 938km of coast and Piauí the smallest, with 60km of coastline. The Northeast Region is known for its sunny and mild weather days all year long, an average temperature between 20 ° and 28 ° C. In localized areas above 200m and of the eastern coast the average is 24 ° to 26 ° C. There are some places in the region where average temperatures are even lower than 20 ° C, which are in the Chapada Diamantina and Borborema Plateau. The rate of annual precipitation ranges from 300 to 2,000 mm. There are four climate types in the Northeast: Humid equatorial, Coastal wet, Tropical and semi-arid in some regions. The vegetation of the Northeast varies greatly, there are stretches of Atlantic forest, savannah and mangroves, among others.
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The South Brazil Region consists of three states. Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul With 576,409.6 square kilometers long, it’s the smallest region of Brazil bordering Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina. With great European influence due to immigration in the nineteenth century, mainly German and Italian, you can notice the their customs in the architecture of some cities, the language and cuisine as well as introduction of a poly-culture system and the small farms in the region. Some southern cities celebrate the traditions of immigrants in traditional festivals, such as Oktoberfest in Blumenau. The climate of the southern region is subtropical, except for the northern Paraná’s predominantly tropical climate. With large temperature variations, it is the coldest region of the country where, during the winter frost occurs, and in some localities as the central Paraná, and the mountainous plateau of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, it can even snow. The seasons are very different and rain falls over the entire region with some regularity throughout the year. The vegetation of the South is diversified, despite being remembered by Araucaria Forest and Pampas Gauchos.
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The Southeast Brazil Region is the wealthiest and most populous of Brazil. Population density of 84,21 inhabitants, despite being the most populous region of the country, it occupies only 11% of the national territory. The Southeast region has several types of climate: tropical, highland tropical, subtropical, humid coastal and semi-arid. The tropical climate prevails in the coastal plains of Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and north west of São Paulo. It presents high temperatures averaging around 22 ° C, and two well-defined seasons: the summer is marked by rain, and the winter is dry. The vegetation of the Southeast region varies with the weather. The Tropical Forest is predominant in the Southeast. Nearby slopes of the ocean, the Atlantic forest is very rich in tall trees. Welcome to the land of the big megalopolis, the Atlantic forest and its small beaches and islands.
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